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Tuesday, November 17, 2009

All linux distributions

All linux distributions are found here.

Tuesday, November 10, 2009

Supertux2 cheats

Not really cheats, but a console with scripts to manipulate the program.

It's found here

Console for SuperTux 2

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SuperTux 0.3.x: This text describes features that can be found in SuperTux 0.3.0 or later

The Console is a panel normally hidden from view. Its usage is twofold:

  • It displays informational, warning and error messages that occur during gameplay, alerting players of things like low diskspace, broken levels, ...
  • It helps debug the engine and test levels by allowing direct execution of Squirrel script commands (see Scripting reference)

The Console pops into view for a short time whenever new messages are printed. To review old messages and enter commands, the console needs to be activated.

To do so, you will have to run supertux using the --console option. The key assigned to opening the console can be changed in the keyboard setup as soon it is activated. (Default of ^) Use --noconsole to disable it again.

To disable or enable the console if you don't want to pass command line parameters, you will have to edit the edit the SuperTux configuration file. Depending on your operating system, this varies:

Operating System Config file location
Linux ~/.supertux2/config
Windows %USERPROFILE%/.supertux2/config
Mac OS X Home/Library/Application Support/SuperTux/config.txt
Mac OS X Leopard %USERPROFILE%/.supertux2/config

You may have to enable viewing hidden files or folders. Anyway, open the file up with a text editor, and

 (console #t)

will enable the console, and

 (console #f)

will disable the console. Find one to change it to the other.


Following is a list of predefined scripts to run in the console:

flip()Flips the current level vertically. Make sure you have something to stand on!
edit()Puts the level into a state suitable for testing out edits. Tux can't exit the level; if he dies or reaches the end he goes into ghost mode.
play()Goes out of edit mode and restarts the level.
kill()Kills Tux
grow()Grows Tux into big Tux
shrink()Shrinks Tux into little Tux (currently broken)
fire()Gives Tux the fire powerup
ice()Gives Tux the ice powerup
lifeup()Gives Tux 100 more coins
finish()Finish the current level
worldmapfinish()Finish all the levels on the worldmap
functions(x)Gives a list of the functions available in an object or table. If no argument is given, this prints out the functions in the root table.
display(*** object) Displays the string value of object in the Console. Object can be of any data type.
print_stacktrace() Displays contents of the current stack.
load_worldmap(string filename) Loads and runs the worldmap specified in filename. (The path is relative to the data root.)
load_level(string filename) Loads and runs the level specified in filename. (The path is relative to the data root.)
get_current_thread() Returns the currently running thread.
display_text_file(string filename) Displays the SuperTux text file named filename. (The path is relative to the data root, e.g. "/home/joe/src/supertux-trunk/data") See also: SuperTux file format reference, SuperTux texts
wait(float time) Pauses execution of the Squirrel code for time seconds.
wait_for_screenswitch() Pauses execution of the Squirrel code until a new screen is displayed (e.g. menu → worldmap or worldmap → level).
exit_screen() Exits the current screen, returning to the previous one or, if the active screen is the last one, exiting SuperTux.
fadeout_screen(float seconds) Does a fadeout for the specified number of seconds before next screenchange.
shrink_screen(float dest_x, float dest_y, float seconds) Does a shrinking fade towards the destposition for the specified number of seconds before next screenchange.
translate(string text) Returns: translated string. Translates text into the user's locale. Note: This construct is unfortunately not yet recognized by XGetText, so translation files have to be written manually.
import(string filename) Imports and runs the Squirrel script filename. (The path is relative to the data root.)
save_state() Dumps the current state into the user's save game file.
update_worldmap() Update worldmap from worldmap state ( variable)
play_music(string musicfile) Changes music to musicfile
play_sound(string soundfile) Plays a soundfile
debug_collrects(bool enable) Enables or disables drawing of collision rectangles.
debug_show_fps(bool enable) Enables or disables drawing of the FPS. (Also affects config file)
debug_draw_solids_only(bool enable) When enabled, only draws solid tilemaps. (No background/foreground tiles)
set_game_speed(float speed) Set speed to run the game at. (Doesn't affect menus/gui)
grease() Speeds Tux's horizontal velocity by a factor of 3.
ghost() Makes Tux a ghost, letting him float around and through objects.
invincible() Make Tux invincible for 10000 units of game time.
mortal() Recall Tux's invincibility or ghost status. (Even when not given with above 2 commands)
restart() Reinitialize and respawn Tux at the beginning of the current level.
whereami() Print out Tux's coordinates to the console.
gotoend() Moves Tux horizontally 2 screens away from the end.
camera() Display the current camera's coordinates. (top-left corner)
quit() Exits the game. (Not recommended for use in levels!)
int rand() Returns a random evenly-distributed integer between 0 and 2147483647, inclusive.

There are many more, see ScriptingGlobals for the full list of utility functions and Scripting reference for all the interesting things you can do.

Console Features

The console currently supports autocomplete, through use of the tab key, line editing with left/right/home/end/delete keys, and viewing past messages using the up, down, page up, and page down keys. To run a command, simply press the enter or return key.

Saturday, November 7, 2009

hermans GRUB 2 pages

Here I found hermans GRUB2 pages. They're very usefull when making a dedicated or USB or CD-ROM grub

Wednesday, November 4, 2009


Run a cloud on your own computer and share it over your network in ubuntu, mac an win.

read the article here:


Tuesday, November 3, 2009

Grub 2 basics install

On this post I read the Grub 2 Basics

The Grub 2 Guide
(formerly Grub 2 Basics)

Note: Most of this information has been incorporated, with a few graphics, into a page in the Ubuntu Help site. I will try to keep this post up-to-date and users are free to continue to post comments here. The help page is located here:

  1. Introduction
  2. First Look Differences
  3. Improvements
  4. Grub 2 Files & Options
  5. Booting Grub
  6. Adding Entries to Grub 2
  7. Removing Entries from Grub 2
  8. Grub 2 Splash Images
  9. Changing Menu Resolution
  10. Booting to LiveCD ISO
  11. Booting to Recovery Mode w/o Menu Option
  12. Uninstalling GRUB 2 > GRUB
  13. Reinstalling GRUB 2 from the LiveCD
  14. Booting from a LiveCD ISO
  15. Booting from the Rescue Mode
  16. Selected Problems
  17. Links
  1. Introduction
    I've written this guide to present some basic information about Grub 2. It is meant for users who may be familiar with basic editing of the original Grub (Grub Legacy) menu.lst and wonder how it carries over to Grub 2 (ver 1.97). I will not cover how to install or uninstall Grub 2 or whether you should convert to Grub 2.

    Grub 2 will be the default in Ubuntu 9.10, Karmic Koala but the plan is not to convert over previous Grub legacy installations to Grub 2.
    Official Announcement / Story

    StartUp-Manager supports Grub 2, but not all options are available. The two most-used items, however, are: setting the default kernel/OS and setting the menu timeout delay. There are plans for a StartUp-Manager 2 that works only for Grub 2 but it is still under development according to its creator. To view a guide on installing and running StartUpManager, view the StartUpManager community doc or the forum post on which it was based:

    Also note that Grub 2 is still in development. Official documentation at this point is limited and still being created. That is partly the reason for this post. More comprehensive and complete documentation will hopefully be forthcoming from the developers and volunteers. Of the existing documentation, I have have provided several links to the better sources at the end of this post.

    First, before proceeding, confirm the version of Grub you are using. Running this command should provide the version:
    grub-install -v
    Which should produce something like this:
    drs305@mycomputer:~$ grub-install -v
    grub-install (GNU GRUB 1.97~beta2)
  2. First Look Differences: GRUB vs GRUB 2
    At first boot, there will not be much difference in what the user sees on the boot menu. The one exception is a clean install of Ubuntu 9.10 with no other installed operating system. In this case, GRUB 2 will boot directly to the login prompt or Desktop without displaying a menu. Other major differences:
    • No ''/boot/grub/menu.lst''. It has been replaced by ''/boot/grub/grub.cfg''.
    • There is no "find /boot/grub/stage1" at the grub prompt. Stage 1.5 has also been eliminated.
    • The main menu file, ''/boot/grub/grub.cfg'' is not meant to be edited, even by 'root'.
    • ''grub.cfg'' is overwritten anytime there is a update, a kernel is added/removed or the user runs `update-grub` *
    • The user can use a custom file, ''/etc/grub.d/40_custom'', in which the user can place his own entries. This file will ''not'' be overwritten.
    • The primary configuration file for changing menu display settings is ''/etc/default/grub''.
    • There are multiple files for configuring the the menu - ''/etc/default/grub'' mentioned above, and all the files in ''/etc/grub.d/'' folder.
    • Other operating systems, such as Windows, should automatically be recognized and added to the menu.
    • No changes made in the configuration files will take effect until the `update-grub` command is also run.

    * To update the GRUB 2 menu, the command sudo update-grub will be used throughout this guide. update-grub actually runs the command "grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg" This runs several scripts and incorporates the results into /boot/grub/grub.cfg which detemines what is seen on the screen during boot. Since the GRUB 2 developers do not intend to remove the update-grub 'stub', it will be used for simplicity and ease of use.
  3. Improvements
    GRUB 2's major improvements over the original GRUB include:
    • New configuration file structure
    • Scripting support including conditional statements and functions
    • Dynamic module loading
    • Rescue mode
    • Themes
    • Graphical boot menu support and improved splash capability
    • Easily boot LiveCD ISO images directly from hard drive
    • Non-X86 platform support (such as PowerPC)
    • Universal support for UUIDs (not just Ubuntu)
    • Improved internationalization, including support for non-ASCII characters
    • Note: openSUSE & Fedora have not yet adopted GRUB 2

  4. Booting Grub
    Grub 2 loads before the operating system. It's modular components are loaded on an as-needed basis. Menu display behavior is generally determined by settings in /etc/default/grub. Review the "Grub 2 Files & Options" section for specific entry and formatting guidance.

    The main options for displaying the menu are:
    • Initial Default
      • Grub 2 will boot straight into the default operating system if no other operating system is detected. No menu will be displayed. If another operating system is detected, the Grub 2 menu will display.
    • Timed display.
      • The default delay is 10 seconds. If no user input is made Grub 2 boots to the default entry.
      • The countdown can be stopped by pressing any key. The user must then make a selection manually.
      • The booted entry is determined by the DEFAULT= setting in /etc/default/grub, The first "menuentry" is 0.
    • Hidden
      • The user can interrupt the boot process and display the menu by holding down the SHIFT key until the menu displays. Grub 2 searches for a depressed SHIFT key signal during boot. If the key is pressed or Grub 2 cannot determine the status of the key, the menu is displayed.
      • The time the screen remains blank but available for display is determined by a setting in /etc/default/grub.
      • To provide visual feedback during while the countdown continues, a countdown display can be shown on the screen.
      • At the end of the timeout, the default entry determined in /etc/default/grub will be selected.
    • Saved
      • If the default option is set to "saved", the last kernel/system successfully booted will be selected and run if no input is made.

  5. Grub 2 Files & Options
    Many of the files in /boot/grub will not be recognizable by users of Grub Legacy. Especially noticeable are the multitude of *.mod files. Grub 2 is modular and these files are loaded as necessary by the grub bootloader.

    The Grub 2 user-configurable settings are contained mainly in /etc/default/grub and the files in /etc/grub.d. When update-grub is executed the results are input into the /boot/grub/grub.cfg file.
    • /boot/grub/grub.cfg
      • This is the main Grub 2 file. It "replaces" Grub Legacy's /boot/grub/menu.lst This file contains the Grub menu information but unlike Grub Legacy's menu.lst file, grub.cfg is not meant to be edited.
        • grub.cfg is automatcially generated when "update-grub" is executed:
        • Each section (### BEGIN) is clearly delineated and references the file in the /etc/grub.d folder from which the information was generated.
        • grub.cfg is updated by running the "update-grub2" or "update-grub" command as root.
        • By default, and whenever the "update-grub2" command is executed, this file is made "read-only". This is in keeping with the intent that the file should not be edited manually. If you must edit this file, instructions are provided in Section 2.
      • Sample grub.cfg including Windows and one manual entry (41_srcd):
        # It is automatically generated by /usr/sbin/grub-mkconfig using templates
        # from /etc/grub.d and settings from /etc/default/grub

        ### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/00_header ###
        set default="0"
        if [ ${prev_saved_entry} ]; then
        save_env saved_entry
        save_env prev_saved_entry
        insmod ext2
        set root=(hd0,1)
        search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 7ebcfe33-6914-42ec-9d2e-0859f7396925
        if loadfont /usr/share/grub/unicode.pf2 ; then
        set gfxmode=640x480
        insmod gfxterm
        insmod vbe
        if terminal_output gfxterm ; then true ; else
        # For backward compatibility with versions of terminal.mod that don't
        # understand terminal_output
        terminal gfxterm
        if [ ${recordfail} = 1 ]; then
        set timeout=-1
        set timeout=10
        ### END /etc/grub.d/00_header ###

        ### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/10_linux ###
        menuentry "Ubuntu, Linux 2.6.31-12-generic" {
        save_env recordfail
        set quiet=1
        insmod ext2
        set root=(hd0,1)
        search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 7ebcfe33-6914-42ec-9d2e-0859f7396933
        linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.31-12-generic root=UUID=7ebcfe33-6914-42ec-9d2e-0859f7396933 ro quiet splash
        initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.31-12-generic
        menuentry "Ubuntu, Linux 2.6.31-12-generic (recovery mode)" {
        save_env recordfail
        insmod ext2
        set root=(hd0,1)
        search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 7ebcfe33-6914-42ec-9d2e-0859f7396933
        linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.31-12-generic root=UUID=7ebcfe33-6914-42ec-9d2e-0859f7396933 ro single
        initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.31-12-generic
        menuentry "Ubuntu, Linux 2.6.31-11-generic" {
        save_env recordfail
        set quiet=1
        insmod ext2
        set root=(hd0,1)
        search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 7ebcfe33-6914-42ec-9d2e-0859f7396933
        linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.31-11-generic root=UUID=7ebcfe33-6914-42ec-9d2e-0859f7396933 ro quiet splash
        initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.31-11-generic
        menuentry "Ubuntu, Linux 2.6.31-11-generic (recovery mode)" {
        save_env recordfail
        insmod ext2
        set root=(hd0,1)
        search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 7ebcfe33-6914-42ec-9d2e-0859f7396933
        linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.31-11-generic root=UUID=7ebcfe33-6914-42ec-9d2e-0859f7396933 ro single
        initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.31-11-generic
        ### END /etc/grub.d/10_linux ###

        ### END /etc/grub.d/20_memtest86+ ###

        ### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober ###
        menuentry "Microsoft Windows XP Home Edition (on /dev/sda1)" {
        set root=(hd0,1)
        chainloader +1
        ### END /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober ###

        ### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/40_custom ###
        menuentry "Jaunty 2.6.28-15-custom" {
        save_env saved_entry
        set root=(hd0,8)
        linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.28-15-custom root=UUID=48e03255-22b3-488b-ae7e-9dbe4e2beac7 ro quiet splash
        initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.28-15-custom
        menuentry "SystemRescue" {
        save_env saved_entry
        set root=(hd0,6)
        linux /sysrcd/rescuecd subdir=sysrcd setkmap=us
        initrd /sysrcd/initram.igz
        ### END /etc/grub.d/40_custom ###
    • /etc/default/grub
      • This file contains information formerly contained in the upper section of Grub Legacy's menu.lst and items contained on the end of the kernel line. The items in this file can be edited by a user with administrator (root) privileges.
        # If you change this file, run 'update-grub' afterwards to update
        # /boot/grub/grub.cfg.

        GRUB_DISTRIBUTOR=`lsb_release -i -s 2> /dev/null || echo Debian`
        GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet splash"

        # Uncomment to disable graphical terminal (grub-pc only)

        # The resolution used on graphical terminal
        # note that you can use only modes which your graphic card supports via VBE
        # you can see them in real GRUB with the command `vbeinfo'

        # Uncomment if you don't want GRUB to pass "root=UUID=xxx" parameter to Linux

        # Uncomment to disable generation of recovery mode menu entrys
      • A few bugs still exist in the hidden menu feature. Hiding the menu, even with the correct "TIMEOUT" settings in /etc/default/grub may not work as described.
      • GRUB_DEFAULT - Sets the default menu entry. Entries may be numeric or "saved"
        • GRUB_DEFAULT=0 - Sets the default menu entry by menu position. As Grub Legacy, the first "menuentry" in grub.cfg is 0, the second is 1, etc.
        • GRUB_DEFAULT=saved - Sets the default menu entry with whatever was selected last. If the menu is displayed during boot, the last entry selected will be highlighted. If no action is taken, this selection will be booted at the end of the timeout or if the menu is hidden.
          • grub-set-default is enabled when this value is set to saved. You can quickly change the default OS/kernel with this command.
            • The format is "sudo grub-set-default X, with X being the menuentry position (starting with 0 as the first entry) or the exact menu string. Examples: sudo grub-set-default 3 or sudo grub-set-default "Ubuntu, Linux 2.6.31-14-generic"
            • To obtain the existing menuentry choice number (starting from 0) or the menuentry "string", run "grep menuentry /boot/grub/grub.cfg"
        • GRUB_DEFAULT="xxxx" - An exact menu entry, including the quotation symbols, may also be used. In this case, location in the menu will not matter. Example: GRUB_DEFAULT="Ubuntu, Linux 2.6.31-9-generic"
        • For an example of how to enable the "saved" option with a custom menu, see the "Custom User Entries" section.
      • GRUB_TIMEOUT=5 - No change from Grub Legacy. This is the number of seconds before the default entry is automatically booted.
        • Setting this value to -1 will cause the menu to display until the user makes a selection.
        • To display the menu on each boot use a value of 1 or higher.
        • This command defers to the GRUB_HIDDEN_TIMEOUT command. If the hidden display is interrupted by a key press, the GRUB_TIMEOUT counter begins its countdown.
        • In addition to editing the file as root, you can also run the following commands the check and change the default timeout value. The first checks the existing timeout, the second replaces the value. Replace T with the new value.
          cat /etc/default/grub | grep 'GRUB_TIMEOUT='   # Checks current TIMEOUT value.
          sudo sed 's/GRUB_TIMEOUT=5/GRUB_TIMEOUT=T/g' -i /etc/default/grub # Change TIMEOUT value. Replace T with new value.
        • The menu will be hidden unless a # symbol is present at the beginning of this line. ( # GRUB_HIDDEN_TIMEOUT=0 )
        • The default setting initially depends on the presence of other operating systems.
          • Another OS Detected: The menu will be displayed. ( The line will begin with a # symbol. )
          • No other OS Detected: The menu will be hidden.
        • For integers greater than 0, the system will pause, but not display the menu, for the entered number of seconds.
        • 0 The menu will not be displayed. There will be no delay. When this entry is set to 0:
          • The user may force displaying the menu as the computer boots by holding down the SHIFT key.
          • During boot, the system will check the SHIFT key status. If it cannot determine the key status, a short delay will enable the user to display the menu by pressing the ESC key.
        • If enabled, the splash screen designated in 05_debian_theme will be displayed. This setting hides the menu only.
        • true - No countdown is displayed. The screen will be blank.
        • false - A counter will display on a blank screen for the duration of the GRUB_HIDDEN_TIMEOUT value.
      • GRUB_DISTRIBUTOR=`lsb_release -i -s 2> /dev/null || echo Debian`
        • Determines the descriptive name in the menu entry. (Ubuntu, Xubuntu, Debian, etc.)
        If it exists, this line imports any entries to the end of the 'linux' command line (Grub Legacy's "kernel" line) for both normal and recovery modes. This is similar to the "altoptions" line in menu.lst
      • GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="quiet splash"
        This line imports any entries to the end of the 'linux' line (Grub Legacy's "kernel" line). The entries are appended to the end of the normal mode only. This is similar to the "defoptions" line in menu.lst. For a black screen with boot processes displayed in text, remove "quiet splash". To see the grub splash image plus a condensed text output, use "splash". This line is where other instructions, such as "acpi=off" are placed.
      • #GRUB_TERMINAL=console
        Uncomment to disable graphical terminal (grub-pc only)
        Uncomment if you don't want GRUB to pass "root=UUID=xxx" parameter to Linux
      • #GRUB_GFXMODE=640x480
        You can add this line and remove the # symbol to make it active. This entry sets the resolution of the graphical menu (the menu text size). It provides resolutions supported by the user's graphics card (e.g. 640x480, 800x600, 1280x1024, etc). The setting applies only to the boot menu text.
      • From the GRUB 2 menu you can display available resolutions by typing "c" and then at the "grub>" prompt type "vbeinfo"
        Add or uncomment this line to prevent "Recovery" mode kernel options from appearing in the menu. If you want a "Recovery" option for only one kernel, make a special entry in /etc/grub/40_custom.
      • GRUB_DISABLE_OS_PROBER="true" - Enables/disables the os-prober check of other partitions for operating systems, including Windows, Linux, OSX and Hurd.
    • /etc/grub.d/
      • The files in this folder are read during execution of "update-grub" or "update-grub2" commands. The contents are imported into /boot/grub/grub.cfg

        The order of the entries in the grub menu is based on the order of the file names. File named with a starting numeral are run before those beginning with a letter. The order the files are run determines the menu order in grub.cfg.
        Custom entries can be added to the "40_custom" file or in a newly created file.

        Any file created must be executable in order to be included in the grub.cfg file during the "update-grub2" command.
        • 00_header
        • 05_debian_theme: Set background and text colors, themes
        • 10_hurd Locates Hurd kernels
        • 10_linux Locates Linux kernels based on results of the "lsb_release" command.
        • 20_memtest86+: If the file /boot/memtest86+.bin exists, it is included as a menu item.
        • 30_os-prober: Searches for Linux and OS's on other partitions and includes them in the menu.
        • 40_custom: A template for adding custom menu entries which will be inserted into grub.cfg upon execution of the "update-grub2" command. This and any other custom file must be made executable to allow importation into grub.cfg.

  6. Adding Entries to Grub 2
    Menu entries can be added to grub.cfg automatically or manually.
    • Automatically.
      • When "update-grub" or "update-grub2" is executed, Grub 2 will search for linux kernels and other Operating Systems. What and where is looks is based on the files contained in /etc/grub.d folder.
        • 10_linux searches for installed linux kernels on the same partition.
        • 30_os-prober searches for other operating systems.
    • Custom User Entries (/etc/grub.d/40_custom).
      • Entries to grub.cfg can be manually inserted by creating a file in the /etc/grub.d folder.
        • The name of the file determines the order in the menu. 30_os-prober entries will be placed before 40_custom entries, which will be placed before 50_my-sample entries.
        • Any created file must be made executable. This can be done as root by running "sudo chmod +x /etc/grub.d/filename".
        • The files in the /etc/grub.d folder will be read and the contents included in grub.cfg when the "update-grub2" command is executed as root.
      • A sample entry. This file creates a menu item for running the SystemRescueCD (previously installed) from a partition created on sda10. Folders and files must have been copied to the correct location in accordance with the SystemRescueCD if you wish to actually use this entry.
        • Quote:
          exec tail -n +3 $0
          # This file provides an easy way to add custom menu entries. Simply type the
          # menu entries you want to add after this comment. Be careful not to change
          # the 'exec tail' line above.

          echo "Adding SystemRescueCD" >&2
          menuentry "System Rescue CD" {
          set root=(hd0,10)
          linux /sysrcd/rescuecd subdir=sysrcd setkmap=us
          initrd /sysrcd/initram.igz
        • Note the new partition naming convention. Devices start counting from "0" as done previously. sda is designated as "hd0", sdb is "hd1", etc. However the first partition is now designated as sda1. Counting partitions does not start with "0". sda5 is "5".
        • The line 'echo "Adding SystemRescueCD" >&2' is not required. Including it in the file allows this line to be seen in the terminal when "update-grub2" is executed. It provides visual feedback that the entry has been found and entered. The entry, if in the correct format, will be inserted in grug.cfg whether or not this line is included in the file.
      • Tip: If you want to have your custom entries at the top of the menu (say you want custom titles), create a new file and name it "07_xxxx". Since the files in /etc/grub.d/ are read sequentially, those in "07_custom" will be placed before those of "10_linux". I recommend not naming a custom menu file lower than 06 so that any theme run from 05_debian_theme is allowed to run before any custom menu is created. After creating the file, run sudo update-grub and then check the value of "DEFAULT" in /etc/default/grub. If it doesn't point to the correct menuentry, change the value of DEFAULT to the correct menuentry value.
      • Omitting memtest86+: To prevent "memtest86+" entries in your Grub 2 menu, remove the "executable" bit from /etc/grub.d/20_memtest86+. You can do this via a file browser by selecting "Properties (right click), Permissions", or via the command line:
        sudo chmod -x /etc/grub.d/20_memtest86+
      • Omitting Recovery Mode entries: The file /etc/grub.d/10_linux was recently updated to include a check for recovery mode options. Edit /etc/default/grub and add or change this line:
        If you have an older version of /etc/grub.d/10_linux and the above does not work after updating grub, you can prevent "Recovery mode" entries in your Grub 2 menu, by editing /etc/grub.d/10_linux. If there are no conditional "if" statements concerning the recovery mode, place a comment symbol (#) in front of the following lines (at approximately line 146) of the old file:
        # linux_entry "${OS}, Linux ${version} (recovery mode)" \
        # "single ${GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX}"
        If you wish to retain one "Recovery mode" entry for insurance, you can add an entry to /etc/grub.d/40_custom which will appear at the bottom of your grub menu.
      • Building a Totally Customized Menu: Ok, admit you are a control freak and you want to see only what you build yourself - customized titles, no "memtest86+" and no extra kernels. Here is how you do it:
        • Run sudo update-grub to get the current available kernels.
        • Copy the desired "menuentry" listings from /boot/grub/grub.cfg to /etc/grub.d/40_custom The entry begins with the line starting with "menuentry" and ends with a line containing "}".
        • Add any other "menuentry" items you wish to see on the boot menu.
        • Edit the titles of the "menuentry" line if desired (between the quotation symbols). Do not change the lines following the "menuentry" line. Each entry should start with a "menuentry" line and end with a "}" on the last line.
        • Remove the executable bit from /etc/grub.d/10_linux, /etc/grub.d/20_memtest86+ and /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober
          Removing the executable bit from any file in /etc/grub.d will exclude the file from being included in grub updates.
          sudo chmod -x /etc/grub.d/10_linux /etc/grub.d/20_memtest86+ /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober
        • Run "sudo update-grub"
        • The updated /boot/grub/grub.cfg file should now contain only sections for "00_header", "05_debian_theme" and "40_custom".
        • The grub.cfg file will not be updated with the addition of a new kernel. To add a new kernel, make "10_linux" executable, run "sudo update-grub" to refresh the available kernels, and repeat these instructions.
      • Incorporating the DEFAULT=save Option: In order to enable the "saved default" option with which Grub 2 preselects the last successfully-used option at boot, the "DEFAULT=save" option must be entered in /etc/default/grub and the 40_custom file must be modified. An example of a 40_custom file follows:
        • Quote:
          #! /bin/sh -e

          . ${libdir}/grub/grub-mkconfig_lib
          echo "Adding SystemRescueCD & Custom Kernel" >&2

          menuentry "Jaunty 2.6.28-15-custom" {
          save_default_entry | sed -e "s/^/\t/"
          set root=(hd0,7)
          linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.28-15-custom root=UUID=12c55255-27b3-488b-hje7e-9dbe4e2esfg5 ro quiet splash
          initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.28-15-custom

          menuentry "SystemRescue" {
          save_default_entry | sed -e "s/^/\t/"
          set root=(hd0,6)
          linux /sysrcd/rescuecd subdir=sysrcd setkmap=us
          initrd /sysrcd/initram.igz
        • Manual Windows Entry (with /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober made unexecutable)
          #! /bin/sh -e

          echo "Adding Windows 43_custom" >&2
          menuentry "Windows Vista 43_custom" {
          insmod ntfs
          set root=(hd0,1)
          search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set CFFCFF9EECFF7F49
          chainloader +1
      • Don't forget to run "sudo update-grub" after making any changes to your /etc/grub.d files.
    • Manual Editing of grub.cfg (Not encouraged)
      Manual editing of /boot/grub/grub.cfg is not encouraged. Think of grub.cfg as a result, not as an initiator. The files that should be edited are contained in the /etc/grub.d folders and the /etc/default/grub file.

      In order to discourage its editing, grub.cfg is read-only. Even attempting to open, edit and save this file using root privileges cannot be done until the 'read-only' status is changed. If you must edit this file:
      sudo chmod +w /boot/grub/grub.cfg
      gksudo gedit /boot/grub/grub.cfg
      Note: This file is returned to 'read-only' status anytime the update-grub command is run.

  7. Removing Entries from Grub 2
    Entries should be removed by editing or removing files in the /etc/grub.d folder. The /boot/grub/grub.cfg file is read-only and should not normally require editing.
    • Automatically.
      • Too Many Kernels? Kernels removed via Synaptic or with "apt-get remove" will automatically update grub.cfg and no user action is required.
        • In Synaptic, type the kernel number in the search window at the upper right (for example - 2.6.28-11).
        • Find the "linux-image" and "linux-headers" files for the applicable kernel (example - linux-image-2.6.26-11 or "linux-image-2.6.26-11-generic).
        • Right click and select "Mark for Complete Removal" and then press the Apply main menu button.
        • The kernels will be removed from your system and from the Grub menu.
        • If you are not sure of the kernel you are currently using, in a terminal type "uname -r".
        • Many users keep one previous kernel on the machine which previously ran without problems.
      • Other Operating Systems which have been removed from the computer will also be removed from the menu once "update-grub2" is run as root.
      • To prevent one of the /etc/init.d files from running, remove the "executable" bit.
        • Example: If you don't want to see the "Memtest86+" entries, run this command:
          sudo chmod -x /etc/grub.d/20_memtest86+
        • Run the update-grub command to allow the changes to be incorporated in grub.cfg

      User-Created Entries.
      • To remove a user-created menu entry, remove the applicable file from the /etc/grub.d folder.
      • If a custom file contains multiple entries, individual items may be removed and others retained.
      • Once the file has been removed or edited, run "update-grub2" to update grub.cfg.

  8. Grub 2 Splash Images
    Why reinvent the wheel? Visit this site for an excellent presentation on creating Grub 2 images:

    However, if encrypted disks are not an issue, here are the basics:
    • Manually copy grub splash images into the /usr/share/images/grub folder or install the default grub2 splash images via Synaptic or:
      sudo apt-get install grub2-splashimages
    • The grub2's splash images are controlled by /etc/grub.d/05_debian_theme. Open this file for editing:
      gksudo gedit /etc/grub.d/05_debian_theme
      Find the following line and edit the highlighted area, replacing it with the grub splash image you wish to use (and located in /usr/share/images/grub):
      for i in {/boot/grub,/usr/share/images/grub}/moreblue-orbit-grub.{png,tga} ; do
      Note: There is a period ( . ) following the filename.
      • At one point Grub 2 splash images were downloaded and stored in /usr/share/images/desktop.base If this is where your grub images are stored, change the address in the previous command accordingly ( ... /usr/share/images/desktop-base} ... ).
    • Save the file, then update grub2:
      sudo update-grub2

  9. Changing Menu Resolutions
    If the user wishes to change the resolution of the GRUB 2 screen while using a splash image follow these steps:
    1. Set the desired resolution in /etc/default/grub
      • Change the value of GRUB_GFXMODE= (Example: GRUB_GFXMODE=800x600)
        • If unsure of what resolutions are available to GRUB 2 they can be displayed by typing vbeinfo in the GRUB 2 command line. The command line is accessed by typing "c" when the main GRUB 2 menu screen is displayed.
    2. Select an image of the same size and make the change in /etc/grub.d/05_debian_theme
      • The image name is located in the line beginning with " for i in {/boot"
      • If an image of the correct size is not used, the menu will not be positioned correctly.
      • Use the image editor of your choice to create/resize an image to the correct size.
      • The user may be able to view the image size via Properties in a file browser (check the Properties Image tab in Nautilus).
    3. Run update-grub as root to add the new settings to /boot/grub/grub.cfg

  10. How to Boot to the Recovery Mode w/o a Menu Option
    1. If you have Grub 2 set to boot without displaying the menu at all, hold the SHIFT key down until the menu displays. (In Grub it was the ESC key.)
    2. Press any key once the menu is displayed to 'freeze' it. Then arrow to the kernel you want to boot.
    3. Press E
    4. Scroll to the end of the "linux /boot/vmlinuz...." line. If displayed, remove "quiet" and/or "splash". Add the word "single" to the end of the line.
    5. Press CTRL-X to boot to the Recovery menu.

  11. Uninstalling GRUB 2
    The command line produces a cleaner uninstall and reinstallation. While adding and removing the packages can be accomplished with Synaptic, certain steps must be accomplished in a terminal.
    • Open a terminal: Applications, Accessories, Terminal.
    • Make backup copies of the main GRUB 2 folders & files
      • Code:
        sudo cp /etc/default/grub /etc/default/grub.old
        sudo cp -R /etc/grub.d /etc/grub.d.old
        sudo cp -R /boot/grub /boot/grub.old
    • Remove GRUB 2
      • Code:
        sudo apt-get purge grub2 grub-pc
      • The user will be warned the system will be unbootable without installing another bootloader.
      • Once the packages are removed, many files will still remain in '/boot/grub'
    • Install GRUB 0.97
      • Code:
        sudo apt-get install grub
      • With ''grub'' installed, the user must still create the ''menu.lst'' and ''stage1/stage2'' files.
      • Code:
        sudo update-grub
        • Generates ''menu.lst'' Tab to "Yes" when prompted.
      • Code:
        sudo grub-install /dev/sdX
        • Choose the correct device (sda, sdb, etc), normally the one on which Ubuntu is installed.
        • Creates the ''stage1'' & ''stage2'' files in ''/boot/grub'' and writes to the MBR.
    • Reboot

  12. Reinstalling GRUB 2 from LiveCD
    If you cannot boot from GRUB 2 and need to reinstall it:
    • Boot to the 9.10 Karmic LiveCD Desktop.
    • Open a terminal - Applications, Accessories, Terminal.
    • Determine your normal system partition - `sudo fdisk -l` (That is a lowercase L)
    • If you aren't sure, run `df -Th`. Look for the correct disk size and ext3 or ext4 format.
    • Mount your normal system partition:
      sudo mount /dev/sdXX /mnt
      • Note: substitue the correct partition: sda1, sdb5, etc.
      • Note: GRUB 2 counts the first drive as "0", but the first partition as "1"
    • Only if you have a separate boot partition:
      • Code:
        sudo mount /dev/sdYY /mnt/boot
        with sdYY being your /boot partition designation.
    • Mount devices:
      sudo mount --bind /dev/ /mnt/dev
    • Chroot into your normal system device:
      sudo chroot /mnt
    • Reinstall GRUB 2:
      sudo grub-install /dev/sdX
      • Note: Substitute the correct device - sda, sdb, etc. Do ''not'' specify a partition number.
    • Verify the install:
      sudo grub-install --recheck /dev/sdX
      • Note: Substitute the correct device - sda, sdb, etc. Do ''not'' specify a partition number.
    • Exit chroot: CTRL-D
    • Unmount devices:
      sudo umount /mnt/dev
    • If you mounted a separate /boot partition:
      sudo umount /mnt/boot
    • Unmount last device:
      sudo umount /mnt
    • Reboot.

  13. Booting from a LiveCD ISO
    This section is under construction. Although I have been able to successfully mount the 64-bit Karmic desktop ISO the results among the other releases is not consistent enough to post.

  14. Booting from the Rescue Mode
    At the grub rescue> prompt, accomplish the following actions to attempt to boot to the latest kernel:
    • ls This will display the known devices and partitions. From this information, the user must determine the device and partition on which the system is installed.
    • set root=/dev/sdXY X is the device/drive, starting with 0. Y is the partition, starting with 1. (Example: (hd0,1) is sda1. (hd3,5) is sdc5.
    • ls /boot Inspect the contents. The user should see varioius kernels, initrd images and the grub folder. If not, use the ls command to inspect the device and attempt to find these files and folders. If necessary, set another device as root.
    • insmod /boot/grub/_linux.mod Load the linux module. Without this module loaded, the user will receive an "Unknown command linux" message when trying to load the kernel.
    • linux /vmlinuz root=/dev/sdXY ro Load the linux kernel, substituting the correct designations for "X" and "Y" (example: sda1). The user will see a message showing the kernel has been loaded. (See graphic above)
    • initrd /initrd.img Load the initrd image. When pressing enter, the user may or may not see a message in the terminal. (See highlighted graphic above)
    • boot

  15. Selected Problems
    If you find you need to remove the following lines manually to get Grub to boot properly:
    save_env recordfail
    Open /etc/grub.d/10_linux with admin rights:
    gksu gedit /etc/grub.d/10_linux
    Look for this section and comment the lines in bold;
    linux_entry ()
    menuentry "$1" {
    save_env recordfail
    Change it to:
    - linux_entry ()
    menuentry "$1" {
    # recordfail=1
    # save_env recordfail
    Save the file, then run
    sudo update-grub
    The two lines should no longer appear when you press E to view the selection in the Grub 2 menu. You will see a "save_env save_entry" line but this should not cause the failure if you successfully booted the previous time.

  16. Links
    Grub2 (
    Grub 2 Title Tweaks
    Grub 2 Introduction
    Grub 2: A Guide for Users (from Kubuntu
    GNU Grub 2 Manual Links
    GNU Grub 2 Manual (in development)
    Grub 2 Wiki
    Herman's Grub 2 Site Comprehensive.

Grub 2 introduction

On this site I read this post:

GRUB 2 Introduction


There is a lot of great information on grub2 on this forum.

I wrote this up to give folks a flying start. This will not make you an expert but it will, hopefully, get you headed in the right direction.

A lot of people have trouble, right after installation, with other OS' being missing from the menu. The first thing to do for this is go to your terminal and;
sudo update-grub
This is all it takes a majority of the time.
EDIT (10-28-09)
There is another way to update grub;
sudo grub-mkconfig
This is supposed to be the default and will, I believe, soon replace update-grub altogether.

Grub2 is completely different from grub-legacy. If you are using grub2 be prepared to learn something new.

The menu that you see on the screen when you boot up comes from the /boot/grub/grub.cfg file.

The /boot/grub/grub.cfg file is generated everytime “update-grub” is run. This is run everytime you get a kernal update and many times when you get a grub update. It does not make sence to edit this file.

Grub.cfg is generated by scripts in /etc/grub.d.

00_header gets the ball rolling and gets your timeout and hidden menu information for the menu.

05_debian-theme sets up how your menu looks on the screen.

10_linux is the one that gives you the menu entry for the OS that you are on.

20_memtest86+ is what sets the memtest on your menu.

30_os-prober is what is responcible for finding the rest of your OS'.

40_custom is designed so that you can make custom entries.

Grub2 gets its time out information and sets up a hidden menu for you in /etc/default/grub.

If you need to edit a menu entry that does not work do not mess with grub.cfg. It is silly to do so. It will be over written.

Go to /etc/grub.d and add to the 40_custom file. For instance;
30_os-prober does not generate a functional menu entry for my Mandriva installs. So I have a custom entry that works every time and comes right up on the menu every time. It is not over written because it is regenerated every time that “update-grub” is run.
 menuentry "linux-nonfb (on /dev/sda12)" {
insmod ext2
set root=(hd0,12)
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set c23ad2ca-67a5-4a42-8fcc-3baa6d8e454e
linux /boot/vmlinuz BOOT_IMAGE=linux-nonfb root=UUID=c23ad2ca-67a5-4a42-8fcc-3baa6d8e454e resume=UUID=59fe476e-6d4f-e390-ced9-f29328538dfc
initrd (hd0,11)/boot/initrd.img
As you can see the partition is defined as being in two different places in this entry. It will not boot. The entry below will boot very well indeed.

        menuentry "Mandriva-Gnome" {
linux (hd0,12)/boot/vmlinuz
initrd (hd0,12)/boot/initrd.img
This also works very well for your non-grub2 Ubuntu OS'.

I use a slightly different entry for grub2 Ubuntu installs;
 menuentry "Kinky-Grub2-A2 on sda10 2.6.31-11-generic" {
set root=(hd0,10)
linux /vmlinuz root=/dev/sda10 so quiet splash
initrd /initrd.img
This entry works even if you change the OS on the partition.

Your custom entries must be in the proper form. The first thing to do is start your favorite text editor (I use gedit). Go to preferences and set it so that there is NO test wrapping.

Then, in your 40_custom file put in an entry such as;
 echo "Adding Kinky-Grub2-A2 on sda10 (2.6.31-11-generic)" >&2
cat << EOF
menuentry "Kinky-Grub2-A2 on sda10 2.6.31-11-generic" {
set root=(hd0,10)
linux /vmlinuz root=/dev/sda10 so quiet splash
initrd /initrd.img
That is the entire entry for that OS. It is the one that I use for experimenting on grub2. The part that does the work is between the { }s. Make sure that they are where they belong.

If you save this file as 06_custom it will appear at the top of menu you see on the screen. If you save it as 40_custom it will appear at the bottom of menu you see on the screen.

Now, what is the advantage of this rigamarole compared to grub-leagacy.

Well, if you have three OS' on your drive and you set up a custom menu you do not need any other menu entries at all. So you change the permissions on 10_linux, 20_memtest86+, 30_custom so that they are not executable. They will not run when “update-grub” is run and so the onoy thing on your menu is your custom entries. There is nothing that can mess with these entries except you.

You must remember to run;
 sudo update-grub
Everytime you do anything that is to change your menu. This will overwrite your /boot/grub/grub.cfg file and thus the menu that shows up on your screen.

Here are some links, some more useful than others, that I have collected.

Some grub2 links;

In case grub2 is just too much, you may want to take a look at this;

Some other links that are just interesting and may help or inspire some one;

Monday, November 2, 2009

GRUB2 title tweaks

This site: Grub 2 Title Tweaks Thread is interesting. I quoted it here:

Grub 2 Title Tweaks

or the

I Don't Want It to Say "Microsoft Windows Vista Home Edition" Thread

This thread offers tweaks to the Grub 2 10_linux and 30_os-prober files in /etc/grub.d. The purpose is to change the way Titles are displayed on the Grub 2 menu.

With the exception of the "But First" section, the tweaks in this thread are outside the normal options currently available in Grub 2's /etc/default/grub. As Grub 2 options are incorporated by the developers these scripts will be annotated or removed.

If you are looking for an introduction on how Grub 2 works, please visit Grub 2 (Ubuntu Community Help doc), Grub 2 Basics or Grub 2 Introduction elsewhere on the Ubuntu Forums. This thread also does not discuss custom configuration files such as /etc/grub.d/40_custom although these tweaks could be incorporated therein.

Feel free to post your tweaks but please limit this thread to posts concerning the Grub text you see in the menu. Also suggest improvements to the ones I posted - I'll edit them to keep them udpated. See the end of this post for some suggestions.

Hopefully as the capabilities of Grub 2 are expanded or become better understood many of these tweaks will become unnecessary. In the meantime those truly anal among us who can never leave things alone will have a place of refuge.

Grub 2 displays, unlike Grub, are not controlled by a single file but rather by the settings in /etc/default/grub and a series of script files located in /etc/grub.d/ . These scripts determine, in part, how the menu options are transferred into /boot/grub/grub.cfg and the menu you see on boot.

See Grub 2 Basics for a general overview of Grub 2 and for links to other Grub 2 resources.

Before You Start
  1. Make copies of the system files you will be altering.
    Note: If you leave the .bak files executable and in the /etc/grub.d folder they will be run by update-grub.
    sudo cp /etc/grub.d/10_linux /etc/grub.d/10_linux.bak
    sudo cp /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober.bak
    sudo chmod -x /etc/grub.d/*.bak
  2. Make sure you are working in the correct file, and in the applicable section of that file.
  3. Run "sudo update-grub" to incorporate the changes into Grub 2's menu.
  4. When defining variables, the ` symbol is not a straight quote symbol but a 'grave'. It is often found near the top left of the keyboard.

But First: Popular "Built-In" Tweaks for the / System Partition
  • Turn Off "MEMTEST86+"
    There is no setting to turn off the "memtest86+" option in /etc/default/grub but you can eliminate these entries by turning off the script that searches for them. The following command removes the "executable" bit from the /etc/grud.d/20_memtest86+ file. To restore the setting, change the "-" to a "+":
    sudo chmod -x /etc/grub.d/20_memtest86+
    • This effects only the system partition. If you have multiple partitions with Linux installations there is a tweak later that will turn off memtest86+ on them as well.
    • In the Tweaks section there is an explanation of how to boot into the "Recovery Mode" even without a menu option.
  • Turn Off Recovery Mode
    If you don't want to see the Recovery Mode Options for any item, change the setting in /etc/default/grub. While it may be a good idea to have the "Recovery" mode option displayed, if you don't want it, here is how to get rid of it. You can do this by opening the file as 'root' with any text editor and removing the # symbol from the beginning of the line, or by running the following command.
    sudo sed s/'#GRUB_DISABLE_LINUX_RECOVERY="true"'/'GRUB_DISABLE_LINUX_RECOVERY="true"'/g -i /etc/default/grub

Grub 2 Files
The basic configuration settings are made in /etc/default/grub. This thread will not deal with those settings.
The two primary files altered by tweaks in this thread are:
  • /etc/grub.d/10_linux
    • This file contains instructions and scripts which deal with linux kernels on the default system partition.
  • /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober
    • This file contains instructions and scripts to deal with kernels and other operating systems found on other partitions.
    • The file contains four sections. Changes must be made in the correct section, as changes in one section will not effect the scripts in the other sections.
      • The four sections are for Windows, other Linux installations, OSX, and Hurd.

1. /etc/grub.d/10_linux - Changing Ubuntu/Linux Titles (on default partition)

gksu gedit /etc/grub.d/10_linux
  • Defined Variable Examples: ${OS} Ubuntu, Kubuntu, etc.; ${version} 2.6.31-11, 2.6.31-11-generic, etc.
    Added Variable Example: ${codename} karmic
  • Add new variable codename. This list of variables begins at approximately line 87.
    • Code:
      while [ "x$list" != "x" ] ; do
      linux=`version_find_latest $list`
      echo "Found linux image: $linux" >&2
      basename=`basename $linux`
      dirname=`dirname $linux`
      rel_dirname=`make_system_path_relative_to_its_root $dirname`
      version=`echo $basename | sed -e "s,^[^0-9]*-,,g"`
      alt_version=`echo $version | sed -e "s,\.old$,,g"`
      # User-added variable
      codename="`lsb_release -cs`"
      Original Menu Entry: Ubuntu, Linux 2.6.31-11
      This should be located at approximately line 113.
      linux_entry "${OS}, Linux ${version}" \
      New Format: Ubuntu 2.6.31-11
      Change the original line above to look like the following by removing ", Linux":
      linux_entry "${OS} ${version}" \
      New Format: Karmic 2.6.31-11
      Ensure the variable ${codename} has been added into the file's variable list.
      The codename returned in this script will always be the current codename of your present Linux OS (i.e. karmic, jaunty, etc.).
      Change the original line above to look like the following:
      linux_entry "${codename} ${version}" \
  • Run "sudo update-grub" to update the Grub 2 Menu.

2. /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober - Changing Windows or Other Detected OS Titles (including Linux)
  • This file is divided into sections for various types of operating systems. The first section is for Windows (OS), the second Linux (linux), the third OSX (macosx), and finally Hurd (hurd).

    gksu gedit /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober
    A. Changing Windows Entries
    • Changes made via this method are best done to OS or kernels which the user does not expect to change. If the system detects a title change the entry in #3 may no longer be correct.

      Original Menu Entry: Microsoft Windows XP Home Edition (on /dev/sda1)

      1. Run this command to get the current Grub 2 menu entries:
      sudo cat /boot/grub/grub.cfg | grep "menuentry" | cut -d '"' -f 2
      New Format: Whatever (on /dev/sda7)
      2. This section appears around line 83 of the file. Replace the section in red with the content in #4.
      for OS in ${OSPROBED} ; do
      DEVICE="`echo ${OS} | cut -d ':' -f 1`"
      LONGNAME="`echo ${OS} | cut -d ':' -f 2 | tr '^' ' '`"
      LABEL="`echo ${OS} | cut -d ':' -f 3 | tr '^' ' '`"
      BOOT="`echo ${OS} | cut -d ':' -f 4`"

      if [ -z "${LONGNAME}" ] ; then
      3. Copy the exact title you wish to change (Example: Microsoft Windows XP Home Edition ) and place it between the quotes in the first line below.
      4. Enter the desired title between the quotes in the second line below - in this example, "Windows XP" would replace "Enter Desired New Title Here".
      # Original
      # if [ -z "${LONGNAME}" ] ; then
      # LONGNAME="${LABEL}"
      # fi

      if [ "${LONGNAME}" = "Enter Exact Title You Just Copied" ] ; then
      LONGNAME="Enter Desired New Title Here"
      elif [ -z "${LONGNAME}" ] ; then
      5. Multiple entries can be made in the same section:
        if [ "${LONGNAME}" = "Enter Exact Title You Just Copied" ] ; then
      LONGNAME="Enter Desired New Title Here"
      elif [ "${LONGNAME}" = "Enter Second Title You Copied" ] ; then
      LONGNAME="Enter Desired Second Title Here"
      elif [ -z "${LONGNAME}" ] ; then

    B. Changing Other Linux Installations
    1. Included in the first codeblock below are all the user-defined variables used in this section of the guide. They apply to the "linux" section of /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober file.
      It is only necessary to insert the ones you wish to use. For simplicity and space-saving, they have all been included in the first codeblock below.
    2. Defined Variables Examples: ${LONGNAME} Microsoft Windows XP Home Edition, Ubuntu 9.04 (9.04); ${DEVICE} sda1, sdb6, etc; ${LLABEL} Ubuntu, linux 2.6.31-11
    3. Find the linux section of the file at approximately line 120 (before other additions).
    4. Add the variables you wish to use from the examples below. Following the added variables are examples of possible returned value:
      ${newtitle} Ubuntu 9.04 ;${shortkernel} 2.6.28-15 ; ${nomemtest} memtest86+ ; ${nosingle} single ; shortdevice (sda5) ; ${hidekernel} 2.6.26
      LINUXPROBED="`linux-boot-prober ${DEVICE} 2> /dev/null | tr ' ' '^' | paste -s -d ' '`"

      for LINUX in ${LINUXPROBED} ; do
      LROOT="`echo ${LINUX} | cut -d ':' -f 1`"
      LBOOT="`echo ${LINUX} | cut -d ':' -f 2`"
      LLABEL="`echo ${LINUX} | cut -d ':' -f 3 | tr '^' ' '`"
      LKERNEL="`echo ${LINUX} | cut -d ':' -f 4`"
      LINITRD="`echo ${LINUX} | cut -d ':' -f 5`"
      LPARAMS="`echo ${LINUX} | cut -d ':' -f 6- | tr '^' ' '`"
      # User-added variables
      newtitle=`echo ${LONGNAME} | cut -d " " -f 1-2`
      shortkernel="`echo ${LKERNEL} | cut -d "-" -f 2-4`"
      shortdevice="`echo ${DEVICE} | cut -d "/" -f 3`"
      nomemtest="`echo ${LLABEL} | cut -d " " -f 1`"
      nosingle="`echo ${LPARAMS} | sed 's/^.* //'`"
      hidekernel="`echo ${LKERNEL} | cut -d'-' -f2`"
      Original Menu Entry: Linux, Ubuntu 9.04 2.6.28-15 (on /dev/sda7)
      Modify the entry in red for each section you want to change (approximately line 135 in original file):
              cat << EOF
      menuentry "${LLABEL} (on ${DEVICE})" {
      New Format: Ubuntu 9.04 2.6.28-15 (on /dev/sda7)
              cat << EOF
      menuentry "${newtitle} ${shortkernel} (on ${DEVICE})" {
      New Format: Ubuntu 9.04 2.6.28-15
              cat << EOF
      menuentry "${newtitle} ${shortkernel}" {

    C. Eliminating or Changing "(on /dev/sdX)"
    • There are specific sections for Windows (OS), Linux (linux), and OSX (macosx). Users must find the section(s) they wish to change or do a universal search/replace.
    • Defined Variables: ${LONGNAME} OS title; ${device} Partition location (e.g. sda1, sdb6, etc)
    • Modify the entry in red for each section you want to change.

      Original Menu Entry: Windows XP Home (on /dev/sda7)
      Approximately line 100.
      menuentry "${LONGNAME} (on ${DEVICE})" {
      New Format: Windows XP Home (sda1)
      menuentry "${LONGNAME}" (${shortdevice}) {
      New Format: Windows XP Home
      menuentry "${LONGNAME}" {
      Original Menu Entry: Linux, Ubuntu 9.04 2.6.28-15 (on /dev/sda7)
      Approximately line 136.
      menuentry "${LLABEL} (on ${DEVICE})" {
      New Format: Linux, Ubuntu 9.04 2.6.28-15 (sda7)
      menuentry "${LLABEL}" (${shortdevice}) {
      New Format: Linux, Ubuntu 9.04 2.6.28-15
      menuentry "${LLABEL}" {

    D. Removing MEMTEST+86 and Single User Entries (from other partitions)
    • Grub 2 provides the ability to hide memtest86+ and recovery mode (single user) entries for the default partition without modifying the 10_linux or 30_os-prober files (see later in this section) . I have not found a similar ability to inhibit the display of these entries found by 30_os-prober on other partitions.
    • Refer to the previous section for information on inserting variables. The two variables associated with hiding the memtest86+ and recovery mode (single-user) are ${nomemtest} and ${nosingle}.
    • The conditional statement below tells Grub to skip an entry if it is either a memtest86+ or recovery mode option. While a bit inelegant, when inserted in 30_os-prober it will effectively prevent the applicable options from appearing in the Grub 2 menu.
    • To remove memtest86+ and recovery mode/single user entries for other partitions found by 30_os-prober:
      • Insert the code in green just after the linux variable definitions and before the first "menuentry" in the linux section (approximately line 130 before any additions).
                LINITRD="`echo ${LINUX} | cut -d ':' -f 5`"
        LPARAMS="`echo ${LINUX} | cut -d ':' -f 6- | tr '^' ' '`"
        # User-added variables
        newtitle=`echo ${LONGNAME} | cut -d " " -f 1-2`
        shortkernel="`echo ${LKERNEL} | cut -d "-" -f 2-4`"
        shortdevice="`echo ${DEVICE} | cut -d "/" -f 3`"
        nomemtest="`echo ${LLABEL} | cut -d " " -f 1`"
        nosingle="`echo ${LPARAMS} | sed 's/^.* //'`"
        hidekernel="`echo ${LKERNEL} | cut -d'-' -f2`"

        if [ -z "${LLABEL}" ] ; then

        if [ ${nomemtest} = "Memory" ] || [ ${nosingle} = "single" ]; then

        cat << EOF
        menuentry "${LLABEL} (on ${DEVICE}" \
      • The entry above hides both recovery mode and memtest86+ entries in one line. If desired, they can be divided into 2 separate sections or used singly by removing the applicable conditional statement and the || characters.
    • To inhibit the display of recovery options on the system partition, uncomment or add this line to /etc/default/grub:
    • To inhibit the display of memtest86+ entries from the system partition, make the /etc/grub.d/memtest86+ file non-executable by running this command:
      sudo chmod -x /etc/grub.d/20_memtest86+
    • Run "sudo update-grub" to incorporate these changes into the Grub menu.

    E. Removing a Specific Kernel (from other partitions)*
    • This section discusses how to hide a specific kernel while allowing os-prober to search other partitions.
      There are two components necessary for this option:
      • The Variable: hidekernel="`echo ${LKERNEL} | cut -d'-' -f2`"
        • Entered into the linux section of /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober. See previous section for location.
      • The Conditional Statement: if [ ${hidekernel} = "X.X.XX" ]; then
        • X.X.XX or X.X.XX-XX example: 2.6.28 or 2.6.28-12
    • To Hide All Instances of a Kernel (Example: 2.6.26):
      • hidekernel="`echo ${LKERNEL} | cut -d'-' -f2`"
      • if [ ${hidekernel} = "2.6.26" ]; then
    • To Hide a Specific Kernel (Example to hide 2.6.26-11):
      • hidekernel="`echo ${LKERNEL} | cut -d'-' -f2-3`"
      • if [ ${hidekernel} = "2.6.26-11" ]; then

      1. Add the variable to the linux variable list (approximately line 130).
              hidekernel="`echo ${LKERNEL} | cut -d'-' -f2`"
      2. Determine the kernel you want to hide (Example: 2.6.26 ) and include it in linux section of /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober, at approximately line 140).
              if [ -z "${LLABEL}" ] ; then

      if [ ${hidekernel} = "2.6.26" ]; then

      cat << EOF
      menuentry "${LLABEL} (on ${DEVICE}" \
    * Note: os-prober can be disabled in various ways to prevent Grub 2 from searching any secondary partitions for bootable operating systems. See Grub 2 Basics for more information.

    F. Troubleshooting
    If the tweaks in this section do not work there are several things to check.
    • Are you working with the correct file? Make sure you are making the changes to the file which deals with the item you are trying to hide. Check the grub.cfg file to see which section the entry is appearing in (10_, 30_, etc).
    • Is the variable producing the correct result? The easiest way to check is to either echo the variable results for viewing while update-grub is running or insert the variable in the grub.cfg file for review.
      • Example: The memtest86+ option keeps appearing in the menu, even though you have inserted "nomemtest="`echo ${LLABEL} | cut -d " " -f 1`" into 30_os-prober.
        • Check that the undesired 'memtest86+' menu item is in the 30_os-prober section of grub.cfg
        • Find out what value 'LLABEL' and 'nomemtest' are returning.
        • Alter the following line:
           cat << EOF
          menuentry "${LLABEL} (on ${DEVICE})" {
           cat << EOF
          nomemtest=${nomemtest} LLABEL=${LLABEL}
          menuentry "${LLABEL} (on ${DEVICE}" \
          A sample entry would now look like this, showing you the values:
          nomemtest=memtest86+ LLABEL=Debian GNU/Linux, kernel memtest86+
          menuentry "Debian GNU/Linux, kernel memtest86+" (sda8) {
          Now for each entry, you will have a line directly above displaying the values of nomemtest and LLABEL just before that menu entry was created. With that knowledge, you should be able to tweak the variable to ensure it returns the correct value for the current situation.

Naming your /etc/grub.d custom folder 06_custom will place the custom menu entries at the top of GRUB 2's menu. Menu items placed in 40_custom will appear the the bottom.

If you use a numbered filename less than 30 you may want to check the "DEFAULT=" line in /etc/default/grub after running sudo update-grub to ensure the correct menuentry item is identified.

  1. This custom entry is based on ranch hand's post #26. It provides an entry for the latest kernel on the system and will remain current even after a kernel update. UUIDs may be used to identify root if desired.

    menuentry "Latest Kernel" {
    set root=(hdX,Y)
    linux /vmlinuz root=/dev/sdXY ro quiet splash
    initrd /initrd.img

Thread Recommendations
  • Tweaks that only alter the text on the Grub 2 Menu.
  • If possible, on the first line post the existing title and how it will change.
  • Original Menu Entry: Microsoft Windows XP Home Edition on sda1 >> New: XP

    To achieve this on the first line, copy/paste the code from the last line of this post and then alter it.

    [size="3"][b]Original Menu Entry: [color="DarkRed"]Microsoft Windows XP Home Edition on sda1[/color] >> New: [color="DarkGreen"]XP[/color][/b][/size]